“Без пословицы не проживёшь(볘스 빠슬로비쯔이 니 쁘로쥐뵤쉬)” - 격언(속담)없이 사는것은 불가능하다.

러시아어 일반적으로 자주 사용되는 격언 및 속담을 상황별로 정리해 보았다.  러시아어 속담이나 격언들은 상황에 맞게 대화에 끼워넣으면 꽤나 고급스럽고 유머스런 표현이 될 수 있다. 외워두면 꽤나 유용하게 사용될 것이다. 정리한 러시아 격언 중에 몇몇 것들은 영어권에서도 널리 사용되는 것이기에 낮설지 않을 것이다. 러시아어를 영어로 풀어놨기에 한글번역은 따로 올리지 않겠다. 이 글은 러시아어 전공자들에게 유용할거라 여겨진다.

* 삶, 인생에 관련된 격언
Жизнь прожить – не поле перейти.
Living through life is not as easy as crossing a field.

Век живи – век учись. (Дураком помрёшь).
Live and learn. (And you’ll still die stupid)

* 일반적인 금언
У семи нянек дитя без глаза.
Too many cooks spoil the broth. (Lit: With seven child minders around, the child lost an eye.)

Ночью все кошки серы.
All cats are grey at night. (You can’t see the difference in the darkness)

Всему своё время. Всякому овощу своё время.
All in good time. (All vegetables ripen in their own time)

Всё хорошо, что хорошо кончается.
All’s well that ends well.

Не всё то золото, что блестит.
All that glitters is not gold.

Лучше поздно, чем никогда.
Better later than never.

Нет худа без добра.
Every cloud has a silver lining. (Lit: There is no evil without good)

Что посеешь – то и пожнёшь.
You reap what you sow. (you get what you deserve)
OR: Как аукнется, так и откликнется.
An echo faithfully returns your words.

Лучшее – враг хорошего.
If it ain’t broke, don’t fix it (Something better is the enemy of something good)
OR: От добра добра не ищут.
Do not look for something good when you already have something good.

Перед смертью не надышишься.
You can’t breathe enough air before death. (You can’t get everything done at the last minute. If you haven’t done something in time, just take it easy).

Утро вечера мудренее.
Morning is wiser than evening. (you should sleep on a problem before taking a decision).

Добрая слава лежит, а дурная бежит.
Good repute lies still but bad repute runs. (Bad news travels fast, it’s enough to make one mistake to ruin your reputation. An English equivalent is ‘bad news has wings’)

С паршивой овцы хоть шерсти клок.
Even from a bad sheep, take a little wool. (Try to take advantage even in a bad situation.)

Сколько верёвочка не вейся, а кончику быть.
However long the string, there’s always an end (any situation, however good or bad, will come to an end one day).

Капля камень точит.
A drop of water can drill holes in stone.

Рад бы в рай – да грехи не пускают.
You’d be happy to enter Paradise but your sins won’t let you.

Дорого яичко ко христову дню.
An egg is only precious at Easter. (things are valuable only if they are done or presented in time).
OR: Дорога ложка к обеду.
A spoon is only precious at lunch time.

Любовь зла – полюбишь и козла.
Love is blind. (Lit: Love is cruel – you may find yourself in love with a goat.)

В гостях хорошо, а дома лучше.
There is no place like home. (Lit: It’s good to be a guest, but it’s better to be at home)

Аппетит приходит во время еды.
Appetite comes to those who eat

* 조언
Не плюй в колодец (сгодиться и напиться).
Don’t spit into the well (you may have to drink out of it later).

Не в свои сани не садись.
Do not get into a sleigh that is not yours. (do not try to do what you are not supposed to do or to be what you are not supposed to be.)
OR: По одёжке протягивай ножки.
Stretch your legs as far as your clothes allow.

Ври да не завирайся.
Tell a lie but do not lose the plot.

Неча на зеркало пенять, коли рожа крива.
Don’t blame the mirror if your face is crooked.

Не говори “Гоп”, пока не перепрыгнул.
Don’t say “done” till you jump over something. (till you do it. The English equivalent in meaning is ‘Don’t count your chickens until they’re hatched).

В чужой монастырь со своим уставом не суйся.
When in Rome do as the Romans do. (Lit: Do not take your own rules into a strange monastery)

От сумы да от тюрьмы не зарекайся.
Don’t say that you’ll never come close to prison or begging. (You never know ¬ never say never)

Не рой яму ближнему – сам в неё попадёшь.
Don’t dig a hole for your neighbour – you’ll get into it yourself. (English equivalent: What goes around, comes around).

Со своим самоваром в Тулу не ездят.
Coals to Newcastle. (Lit: Do not take a samovar to Tula. Tula is a city about 200 km from Moscow which was famous for its samovars.)

Снявши голову, по волосам не плачут.
No point crying over your hair when your head is cut off. (Don’t get upset about insignificant things that come about as a result of something more important happening. Don’t cry over spilt milk)

Дарёному коню в зубы не смотрят.
Don’t look a gift horse in the mouth.

Лежачего не бьют.
Don’t kick a man when he’s down.

На переправе коней не меняют.
Don’t change horses mid-stream.

Яйца курицу не учат.
You can’t teach a grandmother to suck eggs. (Lit: Eggs do not each chickens, ie listen to the people with more experience)

Не выноси сор из избы.
Do not take your rubbish out of the house. (Don’t wash your dirty linen in public).

Выше головы не прыгнешь.
You can’t jump higher than your own head. (You can do only as much as you can, you cannot work miracles.)

За двумя зайцами погонишься – ни одного зайца не поймаешь!
If you chase two hares, you’ll catch neither (if you try to do too much, you’ll fail at everything).

Любишь кататься – люби и саночки возить.
If you like riding sleighs you must be prepared to pull them up hills

Поспешишь – людей насмешишь.
By doing things in a hurry you’ll only make a laughing stock out of yourself.

Тише едешь – дальше будешь.
Less haste, more speed (Lit: The slower (the more steadily) you move, the further you get).

Подальше положишь – поближе возьмёшь.
The further away you hide something, the easier you’ll find it. (keep important things in safe places)

Назвался груздём – полезай в кузов.
If you call yourself a mushroom, be prepared to jump into a basket. (Be prepared to be responsible for what you are doing. English equivalent: If you make your own bed, you’ll have to lie in it).
OR: Взялся за гуж – не говори, что не дюж.
If you take up the reins, don’t say you can’t ride.

Дают – бери, бьют – беги.
If you are given something, take it, if you’re getting beaten, run. (Take your chances where you can find them, but don’t hang around if the going gets tough).

Своя рубашка к телу ближе.
Your own shirt is closer to your body. (Put your own interests first)

На безрыбье и рак – рыба.
If there are no fish, crayfish are fish as well. (In the absence of something good, a lesser thing will do.)

Лучше синица в руках, чем журавль в небе.
A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush. (Lit: a bluetit in your hands is better that a crane in the sky).

Цыплят по осени считают.
Do not count your chickens before they are hatched. (Lit: count your chickens in the autumn).

Из спасибо шубы не сошьёшь.
You can’t make a fur coat out of “thank you”. (if you are grateful, show it with something palpable)

Из двух зол выбирай меньшее.
Out of two evils choose the lesser.

*운명과 우연
Наперёд не узнаешь, где найдёшь, где потеряешь.
You never know. (Lit: You don’t know in advance where you gain and where you lose)

Что имеем – не храним, потерявши – плачем.
We do not keep safe what we have, and then we cry when we lose it. (Learn to appreciate what you have)

Кому повешену быть, тот не утонет!
He who’s destined to be hanged will not drown.

* 사람의 성격
В тихом омуте черти водятся.
Still waters run deep. (Lit: In quiet water lives the devil).

Узнают птицу по полёту.
You can tell a bird by its flight. (You can tell a person’s character by his manners, appearance, etc.)

Рыбак рыбака видит издалека.
Birds of a feather flock together. (Lit: A fisherman sees another fisherman at a long distance. Similar people recognise each other and stick together.)

Любопытной Варваре на базаре нос оторвали.
Curiosity killed the cat. Lit: Curious Barbara lost her nose in a market (because she was sticking her nose into every hole trying to find out things)

Сколько волка не корми, а он всё в лес глядит.
However much you feed a wolf, he’ll still look towards the forest. (A person will always try to go back to the place where he feels at home)

Бодливой корове Бог рогов не даёт.
God doesn’t give horns to a cow that likes to butt. (It’s always the people who most want something that never get it).

Мягко стелет, да жёстко спать.
He puts down soft things but you’ll find them hard to sleep on. (Describing somebody whose kind words belie a tough nature)

Обжегшись на молоке, дуют на воду.
Once bitten, twice shy (Lit: A man who’s burned his mouth on hot milk blows on the water.)

Лень – мать всех пороков.
Idleness is the mother of all vice.

Свинья грязь найдёт
A pig will always find mud. (somebody who likes to do unpleasant things will always find a chance to do them.)

Посади свинью за стол – она и ноги на стол.
Give ’em an inch and they’ll take you a mile (Lit: If you put a pig at table, it will put its feet on it.)

Ни рыба, ни мясо.
Neither fish nor meat. (meaning a bland and boring person).

Из грязи, да в князи.
A prince made of dirt. (about someone who suddenly becomes rich or important, originally being poor or common)

* 행실과 예절
Взять быка за рога.
To take the bull by the horns.

Нашла коса на камень.
Hammer meets anvil (Lit: A scythe ran into a stone, meaning a clash between two strong people).

Делать из мухи слона.
To make a mountain out of a molehill (Lit: Making an elephant out of a mouse.)

И на старуху бывает проруха.
No one is perfect. (Lit: Even an old woman can make mistakes.)

Выпивали – веселились, подсчитали – прослезились.
While we were drinking we had fun, but when we counted the cost (of the damage) we cried. (It was fun at the time, but the consequences were grim)

С глаз долой из сердца вон.
Out of sight, out of mind. (Lit: away from the eyes, away from the heart)

Незваный гость хуже татарина.
An uninvited guest is worse than a Tartar.
Cultural tip: Tatars are the ancient enemies of Russia who invaded the country in the Middle Ages.

Пьяному и море по колено.
To have some Dutch courage. (Lit: For a drunken man even the sea is only knee-deep)

Баба с возу – кобыле легче.
When a woman gets off a cart, she lightens the load for the horse. (Some people only make a job harder for everyone else)

* 친구
Для милого дружка и серёжку из ушка.
For a dear friend, you’d give your own earring. (You’ll do anything for a dear friend)

С кем поведёшься – от того и наберёшься.
You can tell a man from his company (Lit: people resemble those they mix with).

Дружба – дружбой, а табачок врозь.
Friendship is friendship, but keep your tobacco apart. (don’t mix business and friendship).
OR: Дружба дружбой, а служба службой.
Duty has no sweethearts (Lit: Friendship is friendship and a job is a job).

Друзья познаются в беде.
A friend in need is a friend indeed. (At the time of trouble you’ll know who your friend is).

Гусь свинье не товарищ.
A goose can’t be a pig’s friend. (Different people do not get on).

* 바보, 멍청이
Заставь дурака Богу молиться – он и лоб расшибёт.
Make an idiot pray to God, and he’ll smash his own forehead. (Idiots take things too far)

Дурака могила исправит.
An idiot can only be reformed in the grave. (stupidity is for life)

Дурака учить – только портить.
You can lead a horse to water, but you can’t make it drink (Lit: You’ll only make an idiot worse by teaching him.)

Пьяный проспится, дурак – никогда.
A drunk person will sleep and sober up, but an idiot won’t. (an idiot is forever stupid).

Простота хуже воровства.
A man of coarse manners is worse than a thief.

* 모스크바
Москва не сразу строилась.
Rome wasn’t built in a day (Lit: Moscow wasn’t built in a day)

Москва – всем городам мать.
Moscow is the mother of all cities.

Кто в Москве не бывал, красоты не видал.
He who has not been to Moscow, has not seen true beauty.

В Москве всё найдёшь, кроме птичьего молока.
You’ll find everything in Moscow, apart from bird’s milk. (i.e. something that does not exist).

Москва слезам не верит.
Moscow does not believe in tears.

* 일
Кто рано встает, тому Бог подает.
The early bird catches the worm. (Lit: God rewards those who get up early)

Работа дурака любит.
Work loves idiots.

Работа не волк – в лес не убежит.
Work is not a wolf, it won’t run away from you into the forest.

Без труда не вытащишь и рыбку из пруда.
Without effort you can’t even pull a fish out of a pond. (Even the simplest things demand a bit of effort)

Терпение и труд всё перетрут.
Patience and work will grind everything down. (You can achieve anything by patience and hard work).

Делу время, потехе – час.
Give most of your time to work, and an hour – to play.

* 사고와 불운
Положить зубы на полку.
Put your teeth on a shelf. (Tighten your belt)

Укатали Сивку крутые горки. Варианты: Порешили (уходили, укачали) бурку крутые горки.
Sivka (the horse) is knackered by steep hills. (no matter how strong you are, there comes a point when you can’t take it any more!)

Кабы знать, где упадёшь – соломки бы подстелил.
If you knew where you’d fall, you’d put some straw down. (if we knew where the problem was going to be, we’d be able to avoid it).

Пришла беда – отворяй ворота.
It never rains but it pours. (Lit: When trouble comes, open your gates)

Куда ни кинь – всё клин.
Wherever you look, everywhere is trouble.

Голод не тётка (пирожка не подаст).
Hunger is not an auntie who gives you pies. (Necessity or poverty will make you work for your living)

Где тонко – там и рвётся.
It’s the weakest link that breaks.

Гром не грянет – мужик не перекрестится.
Until thunder strikes a man will not cross himself. (No point doing things too late.)
Cultural tip: One of the characteristics of Russian people is supposed to be an inability to think about things in advance. We often wait till it’s too late, and then regret it!

Утопающий цепляется за соломинку.
A drowning man grabs a straw. (Hope dies last)

Из огня да в полымя.
Between a rock and a hard place. (Lit: From the fire into the flame)

Семь бед – один ответ.
Seven sins/troubles – one answer. (You’ll answer for all your mistakes taken together at once).

* 진실
В каждой шутке есть доля правды.
Every joke has a grain of truth.

Свежо предание, а верится с трудом.
The legend is fresh but it’s still hard to believe. (about something unconvincing).

* 언어와 대화
Слово не воробей – вылетит, не поймаешь.
A word spoken is past recalling. (Lit: A word is not a sparrow: once it’s out, you won’t catch it).
OR: Молвишь – не воротитшь, плюнешь – не подымешь.
Once you’ve said something, you can’t return it. Once you spit, you can’t pick it up.

На чужой роток не накинешь платок.
You can’t put a cloth over someone’s mouth. (You can’t shut up everyone. The truth will out).

Ешь пирог с грибами, держи язык за зубами.
Eat your mushroom pie, and keep your tongue behind your teeth. (Do not talk too much, it may harm you).

Язык до добра не доведёт.
Your tongue will not do you any good.

Язык до Киева доведёт.
Your tongue will lead you to Kiev. (If you ask people, they’ll help you to find your way).

Сядем рядком да поговорим ладком.
Let’s sit together and talk. (an invitation to discuss something).

У кого что болит, тот о том и говорит.
People speak about things that trouble (hurt) them.

* 음식
Блин не клин – брюха не расколет.
A pancake is not a stick – it won’t split your stomach. (No harm in eating a lot).

Хлеб всему голова.
Bread is more important (than anything else.)

Кто ест скоро, тот и работает споро.
He who eats fast works well.

На вкус на цвет товарища нет.
Tastes differ. (Lit: Even the closest friends needn’t always like the same things).

Пьяный, что малый – что на уме, что и на языке.
A drunk is like a child. He says whatever comes to mind.
OR: Что у трезвого на уме, то у пьяного на языке.
What a sober man has on his mind, a drunk one has on his tongue.

* 신(神)
Бережёного Бог бережёт.
God helps those who help themselves.

На Бога надейся, а сам не плошай!
While relying on God, make an effort yourself.

Человек ходит, Бог водит.
Man proposes, God disposes.

Бог дал, Бог и взял.
Easy come, easy go. (Lit: God gave, God took away)

Доброму Бог помогает.
God helps kind/good people.

Бог терпел и нам велел.
God suffered, and so should we.

* 용기와 두려움
Двум смертям не бывать, а одной не миновать!
You can’t die twice, but you won’t escape dying once.

Не так страшен черт, как его малюют.
The devil is not as bad as you imagine him (fear exaggerates problems or situations – it’s rarely as bad as you fear).
OR: У страха глаза велики.
Fear has big eyes. (When you are scared, you tend to exaggerate things)

Волков бояться – в лес не ходить.
If you are afraid of wolves, don’t go into the forest.

На миру и смерть красна.
In front of other people even death is beautiful. (when there’s a crowd of people watching, you’ll do anything)

Свет не без добрых людей. (На свете не без добрых людей)
The world is not without kind people.

Глаза страшатся, а руки делают.
Your eyes make you scared (of the job), while your hands just do it.